Historically, evaporation has been balanced by drainage, making the levels of the lakes relatively constant. Some of these peninsulas even contain smaller peninsulas, such as the Keweenaw Peninsula, the Thumb Peninsula, the Bruce Peninsula, and the Niagara Peninsula. [111] Researchers at the Mowat Centre said that low levels could cost $19bn by 2050. Although the Saint Lawrence Seaway and Great Lakes Waterway make the Great Lakes accessible to ocean-going vessels,[37] shifts in shipping to wider ocean-going container ships—which do not fit through the locks on these routes—have limited container shipping on the lakes. great lakes A group of five large interconnected lakes in central North America that consist of lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, and constitute the largest area of fresh water in the world. Land below the glaciers "rebounded" as it was uncovered. Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total surface and volume. [77], Several species of exotic water fleas have accidentally been introduced into the Great Lakes, such as the spiny waterflea, Bythotrephes longimanus, and the fishhook waterflea, Cercopagis pengoi, potentially having an effect on the zooplankton population. The U.S. [83], The first U.S. Clean Water Act, passed by a Congressional override after being vetoed by US President Richard Nixon in 1972, was a key piece of legislation,[84] along with the bi-national Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement signed by Canada and the U.S. A variety of steps taken to process industrial and municipal pollution discharges into the system greatly improved water quality by the 1980s, and Lake Erie in particular is significantly cleaner. Though the five lakes lie in separate basins, they form a single, naturally interconnected body of fresh water, within the Great Lakes Basin. [117] A few small cruise ships operate on the Great Lakes including a couple of sailing ships. Since general freight these days is transported by railroads and trucks, domestic ships mostly move bulk cargoes, such as iron ore, coal and limestone for the steel industry. Vessels sailing north on Lake Michigan are considered "upbound" even though they are sailing toward its effluent current.[24]. The lakes contain about 84% of the surface freshwater of North America;[40] if the water were evenly distributed over the entire continent's land area, it would reach a depth of 5 feet (1.5 meters). What I mean by “some degree” is that for example Lake Huron name comes from a French name of Native American Indian tribe inhabiting the area. Algae such as diatoms, along with other phytoplankton, are photosynthetic primary producers supporting the food web of the Great Lakes,[97] and have been effected by global warming. Lake Superior. It has been estimated that the foundational geology that created the conditions shaping the present day upper Great Lakes was laid from 1.1 to 1.2 billion years ago,[14][57] when two previously fused tectonic plates split apart and created the Midcontinent Rift, which crossed the Great Lakes Tectonic Zone. To easily remember their names, think of the word HOMES - it is made up of the first letter of each lake. Running cut logs down the tributary rivers into the Great Lakes also dislocated sediments. Logging, urbanization, and agriculture uses have changed that relationship. No one of the Lakes is larger than Lake Baikal (Russia) or Lake Tanganyika (East Africa). Together, these lakes span more than 750 miles and provide water for a variety of uses, including consumption, power and transportation, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. A similar phenomenon allows wineries to flourish in the Finger Lakes region of New York, as well as in Prince Edward County, Ontario on Lake Ontario's northeast shore. 62, Iss. Fact Check: Is the COVID-19 Vaccine Safe? The Blue Water Bridge is, for example, more than 150 feet high and more than a mile long.[115]. Many of the larger cities owe their existence to their position on the lakes as a freight destination as well as for being a magnet for immigrants. A Jesuit name, Lac Tracy, was never officially adopted. [citation needed] This describes when older sewerage systems, which combine storm water with sewage into single sewers heading to the treatment plant, are temporarily overwhelmed by heavy rainstorms. [71] The last commercial fisherman left Milwaukee in 2011 because of overfishing and anthropogenic changes to the biosphere. By the mid-1980s, most jurisdictions bordering the Great Lakes had controlled phosphate detergents,[88] resulting in sharp reductions in the frequency and extent of the blooms. [87], Phosphate detergents were historically a major source of nutrient to the Great Lakes algae blooms in particular in the warmer and shallower portions of the system such as Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay, Green Bay, and the southernmost portion of Lake Michigan. [14] Lake Michigan is the only one of the Great Lakes that is entirely within the United States; the others form a water boundary between the United States and Canada. [107] Today, the Great Lakes fleet is much smaller in numbers than it once was because of the increased use of overland freight, and a few larger ships replacing many small ones. Lake Michigan is the only Great Lake that is entirely in the United States, and it is also the second largest Great Lake by volume. Ontario is the most tightly regulated, with its outflow controlled by the Moses-Saunders Power Dam, which explains its consistent historical lake levels. The greatest concentration of shipwrecks lies near Thunder Bay (Michigan), beneath Lake Huron, near the point where eastbound and westbound shipping lanes converge. [41] [91] In early August 2019, satellite images depicted a bloom stretching up to 1,300 square kilometres on Lake Erie, with the heaviest concentration near Toledo, Ohio. The smallest and shallowest lake is Lake Erie. One of the more common sights on the lakes has been since about 1950 the 1,000‑by‑105-foot (305-by-32-meter), 78,850-long-ton (80,120-metric-ton) self-unloader. A valley was formed providing a basin that eventually became modern day Lake Superior. This is similar to the effect of warmer air dropping snow as it passes over mountain ranges. On December 13, 2005, the Governors and Premiers signed these two agreements, the first of which is between all ten jurisdictions. The Great Lakes are the largest surface freshwater systems on Earth and contain roughly 21 percent of the world water supply. Caught in a 1679 storm while trading furs between Green Bay and Michilimacinac, she was lost with all hands aboard. [citation needed], Blue-green algae, or Cyanobacteria blooms,[89] have been problematic on Lake Erie since 2011. [85] Discharge of toxic substances has been sharply reduced. great lakes The Great Lakes are a collection of freshwater seas located in eastern North America, on the Canada – United States border. Fact number 1 Canada may be a Métis nation, but not everybody in Canada is part of the Métis Nation. Ships that primarily trade on the lakes are known as lakers. Common sources of pollution include waste from cities, industrial discharge, farm chemicals and pollution that enters directly from the atmosphere. When a second fault line, the Saint Lawrence rift, formed approximately 570 million years ago,[14] the basis for Lakes Ontario and Erie were created, along with what would become the Saint Lawrence River. The Great Lakes have been observed to help intensify storms, such as Hurricane Hazel in 1954, and the 2011 Goderich, Ontario tornado, which moved onshore as a tornadic waterspout. Hydrologically, there are four lakes, because lakes Michigan and Huron join at the Straits of Mackinac. In fact, the Great Lakes are so large they are often referred to as inland seas. Although the region was sparsely populated until the 1830s, so there was not much local demand and transporting fish was still prohibitively costly, there were economic and infrastructure developments that were promising for the future of the fishing industry going into the 1830s. Instance hypernyms: group; grouping (any number of entities (members) considered as a unit). Lake Erie - 9,910 square miles Great Lakes, chain of deep freshwater lakes in east-central North America comprising Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. The states have removed dams from rivers where necessary. Great Lakes-St Lawrence River Basin Water Resources, "Great Lakes Restoration Initiative home page", The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book, Estimate of Ground Water in Storage in the Great Lakes Basin, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Binational website of USEPA and Environment Canada for Great Lakes Water Quality, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory website, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Great Lakes Echo, a publication covering Great Lakes environmental issues, Conference of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Lakes&oldid=1000534627, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles with text in Iroquoian languages, Articles containing Wyandot-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2013, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Popular Science Monthly, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Only four bridges are on the Great Lakes other than Lake Ontario because of the cost of building structures high enough for ships to pass under. [99] Large diatoms require more carbon uptake than smaller diatoms. All together, by volume, they are the largest group of fresh water lakes in the world. [70] The population of giant freshwater mussels was eliminated as the mussels were harvested for use as buttons by early Great Lakes entrepreneurs. Through the program a coalition of federal agencies is making grants to local and state entities for toxics cleanups, wetlands and coastline restoration projects, and invasive species-related projects. Lake Superior is the largest of the five lakes by volume, and it is also the deepest and the coldest. Kitchi-gummi, a Chippewa Indian translation, signifies Great-water or Great-lake. By the mid-1950s, the lake trout populations of Lakes Michigan and Huron were reduced, with the lamprey deemed largely to blame. Background Geology of the North Bay area. In addition, the mussels may be a nuisance to industries by clogging pipes. The agreements strengthen protection against abusive water withdrawal practices within the Great Lakes basin. As a prototype it is subject to occasional, unexplained interruptions in service ... because we keep trying new things. [12] There are also several thousand smaller lakes, often called "inland lakes", within the basin. "Evolution of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement", Paul Muldoon and Lee Botts, Michigan State University Press, 2005, Burkhardt Steffen, Amoroso Gabi, Riebesell Ulf, Sültemeyer Dieter, (2001), CO. Brian N. Popp, Edward A. The Great Lakes can have an effect on regional weather called lake-effect snow, which is sometimes very localized. In the early 21st century, Lake Superior's shores are 91% forested, Lake Huron 68%, Lake Ontario 49%, Lake Michigan 41%, and Lake Erie, where logging and urbanization has been most extensive, 21%. The Great Lakes are the largest surface freshwater systems on Earth and contain roughly 21 percent of the world water supply. Concerns over diversion of Lake water are of concern to both Americans and Canadians. Photosynthesis carried out by diatoms constitutes about one fifth of the total photosynthesis. Some of these forests are second or third growth (i.e. Dunbar. Meanwhile, exotic and invasive species have also been introduced. The Great Lakes are connected by the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal to the Gulf of Mexico by way of the Illinois River (from the Chicago River) and the Mississippi River. "[66] But, water quality improvements realized during the 1970s and 1980s, combined with successful salmonid stocking programs, have enabled the growth of a large recreational fishery. pp. Lakes Huron and Michigan are sometimes considered a single lake, called Lake Michigan–Huron, because they are one hydrological body of water connected by the Straits of Mackinac. A large bloom does not necessarily mean the cyanobacteria ... will produce toxins", said Michael McKay, of the University of Windsor. What Are the Names of the Five Great Lakes? According to the bi-national (U.S. and Canadian) resource book, The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book: "The largest Great Lakes fish harvests were recorded in 1889 and 1899 at some 67,000 tonnes (66,000 long tons; 74,000 short tons) [147 million pounds]. Snow belts are found in Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York, United States; and Ontario, Canada. [10] The lakes have been a major source for transportation, migration, trade, and fishing, serving as a habitat to many aquatic species in a region with much biodiversity. The uneven nature of glacier erosion, some higher hills became Great Lakes are more or less.! [ 128 ] There are four Lakes have native American origins, to some.. Lake Tanganyika ( East Africa ) used on the Great Lakes including a couple of sailing ships ; (. 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